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WASTE AND ENERGY AUDIT IN A PAPER MILL
WASTE AND ENERGY AUDIT IN A PAPER MILL
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Last Update: 10/24/2010
Perera, L.A.K. - Asian Institute of Technology Bangkok, Thailand August, 1996************ Teppattana Paper Mill, a small non-integrated paper mill which manufactures paper and board was selected as the study object in this research study. The study mainly focused to trap potential waste minimization options in the mill. It mainly targeted towards raw water conservation, process modifications, improvement to the effluent treatment plant, energy conservation and to find possibilities for zero discharge. The study indicated that the raw water consumption is 90 m3/ton of paper which is 7 times higher than the standard norms and dissolved solids in raw water is 4 times higher than the accepted values. The suspended solid component leaving the manufacturing process is 59 kg/ton of paper. The overall steam energy and electrical energy consumption of the mill is found to be 2 tons/ton of paper and 631 kWh/ton of paper respectively. Approximately 25% reduction in raw water consumption of the mill and 42% reduction in suspended solids to the primary clarifier is envisaged upon implementaion of waste reduction measures such as water reuse and wastewater segregation. The study concludes with the proposals to reduce the wastewater discharge to the river by almost 100% and to reduce ground water extraction by 83%.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN THE FINNISH RESIDENTIAL BUILDING SECTOR
ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN THE FINNISH RESIDENTIAL BUILDING SECTOR
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Last Update: 10/24/2010
HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Environmental and Quality Management Unit - Francesco Paolo Ippolito - Espoo, 19th July 2006 Supervisor: Professor Tuula Pohjola *************************** size : 649 KB********** The Sustainable Development represents the theoretical basement on which each effort that leads to involve the equitable sharing of the benefits of economic activities in the society is rooted. This concept necessarily passes also through the rational and responsible management of energy regulated by international agreements at global level, such as Kyoto protocol, and by national energy strategies and policies at local level. The residential building sector has important responsibilities in energy consumptions of each nation and for this reason in the 2001 the European Community passed the Directive 2001/91/EC about the energy saving in building constructions. In Finland, the Energy Conservation Program denotes how energy saving is one of the most important means in the national energy strategies and policies for reaching the targets of Kyoto commitments. The implementation of this Energy Conservation Program in the various economic sectors characterized by an important use of energy is made through the Energy Conservation Agreements. The features of the various agreements depend on the sector in which they operate. As regards the residential building sector the Energy Conservation Agreement focuses on the diffusion of the Energy Audit, considered as the fundamental method to achieve rapid improvements in energy efficiency in all the energy processes belonging to the life cycle of a residential building. The research shows the interconnections between Finnish energy strategies and their applications in the residential building sector. The Energy Audit is analyzed, trying to describe his general features and its energy saving potentialities for residential constructions; moreover the main energy saving measures, adopted by building companies, are studied, describing the engineering principle on which they operate. The study is supported by books which come from a literature review and documents\interviews given by members of Finnish either private or governmental organizations which operate in residential building sectors. The research is open to deeper analyses and new investigations from point of view which is different from the one used.
Solar Thermochemical Cycle for Ammonia Production based on Aluminium-based Redox Reactions
Solar Thermochemical Cycle for Ammonia Production based on Aluminium-based Redox Reactions
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Last Update: 7/28/2010
5Mb Fabian Meier Master Thesis at PRE and PSI Master in Renewable Energy Technologies ETH Zürich March 2007 An alternative way of producing ammonia instead of the known Haber-Bosch process is investigated. The novel two-step cyclic process consists of an endothermic carboreduction of Al2O3 to form AlN followed by exothermic steam-hydrolysis of AlN to produce NH3 and the primal Al2O3. After thermodynamic, kinetic and ecological analy-ses experiments at the image furnace and the solar simulator both at PSI were conducted to prove theoretical cal-culations, to state key parameters, close mass balances and to show up problems by employing methane as reducing agent. An autothermic 5kW reactor for the novel cycle was built, successfully tested at the high-flux simulator at ETH, mass balances were closed and efficiencies stated.
An Investigation into the Implications of Using Very Wet Biomass as a Fuel
An Investigation into the Implications of Using Very Wet Biomass as a Fuel
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Last Update: 6/15/2010
The Implications of Using Very Wet Biomass Fuels. A significant issue with the expansion of the biomass market into the UK is the absence of supplies of sufficiently dry wood fuel. Timber-processing companies (with about 6 large sawmills in Scotland) produce tens of thousands of tonnes of sawdust and woodchips, of an appropriate size, from the cantor heads on their sawmills annually. These however are at a moisture content of 55% - 70%, making them unsuitable for direct use in traditional biomass boilers. This report shall look at other non-traditional methods of biomass use that can utilise such wet biofuel sources without the energy intensive need to predry the biomass first.
Energy and Development Report 2001: Energy and the Environment
Energy and Development Report 2001: Energy and the Environment
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Last Update: 6/7/2010
size : 7.21Mb Energy Security ; Renewable Energy; ; Market Efficiency and Governance;
Energy and Development Report 2000: Energy Services for the World's Poor
Energy and Development Report 2000: Energy Services for the World's Poor
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Last Update: 6/7/2010
Global Programs 2000 size : 9.24Mb
Accelerating clean energy technology research development and deployment from Non energy Sectors
Accelerating clean energy technology research development and deployment from Non energy Sectors
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Last Update: 6/7/2010
climate change is one of the key challenges of this century. Specifically, balancing climate change mitigation and increased energy needs in developing countries poses a serious dilemma that can only be reconciled with new and improved clean energy technologies. However, to accelerate innovation in the energy sector, certain factors must be overcome, such as relatively low levels of research,development, and deployment (RD&D) funding andsignificant barriers to advancement. This paper addresses the necessary balance of climate change mitigation and energy needs while examining lessons learned from four case studies on new technology initiatives outside the energy sector. In combating the impact of global climate change, the world faces unprecedented environmental, social, and economic challenges. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report, the Stern Review, and other recent reports emphasize, the world risks devastating threats to our climate if no dramatic action is taken to reduce— not just stabilize—the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.To compound the challenge, the need to reduce emissions comes at a time when the global economy is expanding and the worldwide demand for energy, infrastructure, and transportation is increasing rapidly. Developing countries, as a group,have made impressive economic strides in recent years. However, energy use—the primary source of GHG emissions—is vital to their continued economic growth.At the same time,we must recognize that these countries are the least likely to be able to adapt to climate change. Low-carbon energy technologies offer developing countries the best way to expand energy use to fuel their economies while simultaneously reducing global emissions.As new technologies become available, they can contribute to reconcile the choice between development andemissions reductions. Instead of following the same technological trajectories as industrialized countries, these countries can move directly to advanced clean technologies.Currently, however, most of the clean technologies available are too costly for widespread use. To introduce new thinking in addressing these factors, this paper examines four cases from outside the energy sector where approaches to RD&D have been successful. These case studies highlight creative efforts in (i) international partnerships between public and private actors, (ii) information sharing and intellectual property rights, and (iii) novel financing schemes to generate valuable public goods. As part of its commitment to fight poverty and promote development, the World Bank Group (WBG) has developed the Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework(CEIF) Action Plan. The CEIF outlines key activities the WBG is undertaking to mitigate GHG emissions and help client countries adapt to climate changes.Building on the successes and lessons of the CEIF, the WBG is now developing a comprehensive Strategic Framework for Climate Change (SFCC) to support developing countries’ efforts to adapt to climate change and achieve low-carbon growth while reducing poverty. This paper contributes to an important part of WBG’s climate change and energy work that focuses on analyzing the role of low-carbon energy technologies in climate change mitigation. The four case studies presented in this paper are intended to stimulate thinking on novel approaches to clean energy technology development. They review approaches to innovation by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, Advanced Market Commitments for Vaccines, the Human Genome Project and the concept of Distributed Innovation.Although it is impossible to predict from which labs, universities, and businesses the critical technologies will emerge, it is clear that all countries must be more involved in advancing technologies and solutions.Many middle income countries are stepping up their technology development efforts and generating cutting edge clean energy technology innovations. It is critical to further expand these activities and also to involve low income countries from the onset to ensure that new technologies will be relevant to their needs and be ready for rapid deployment. This paper, along with an ongoing dialogue with stakeholders, can bring together the energy community to develop new approaches to clean energy and to begin meeting the challenges of global climate change.
Nanorod solar cell
Nanorod solar cell
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Last Update: 5/31/2010
The crude oil supply crisis the world is facing today along with the disastrous global warming caused primarily as a result the green house gases, has heightened the need for an eco-friendly and renewable energy technology. Solar cells, with their ability to convert the free and gigantic energy supply of the sun into electricity, are one such attractive choice. In this thesis, a study of the use of new technologies for enhanced solar cell performance based on conversion efficiency is carried out by first understanding the mechanism of selected major solar cell types, followed by an analysis of external or internal factors that affect their performance. One new technology under investigation to boost solar cell efficiency is the introduction of nanorod/wire structures into existing designs. This report discusses this approach in detail, highlighting beneficial characteristics offered and also looking into the structure realization through advanced nanostructure processing techniques. Finally, having a complete technology background at hand, various potential markets for new solar cell technologies are examined.
A systems analysis of solar power potential in coming decades
A systems analysis of solar power potential in coming decades
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Last Update: 5/31/2010
Energy is a very important aspect of human life. In the past few centuries, energy consumption has increased dramatically to a point where humans are very much dependant of energy. Under the current nonrenewable energy extraction technique of burning fossil fuels there are many externalities that are negatively impacting the earth. Society is approaching a limit where these formerly cheap forms of energy will become increasingly more expensive due to the difficulty of their extraction. As such, it is apparent that new renewable forms of energy will develop out of necessity to fulfill the energy demand. The purpose of this paper is to examine the different aspects of the promising area of solar energy. The conclusions of the analysis show that a portfolio of alternative energies will be necessary in the future with solar energy, in particular photovoltaic cells, filling the bulk of the energy generation.
Photon management in thermal and solar photovoltaics
Photon management in thermal and solar photovoltaics
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Last Update: 5/31/2010
size : 46Mb Photovoltaics is a technology that directly converts photon energy into electrical energy. Depending on the photon source, photovoltaic systems can be categorized into two groups: solar photovoltaics (PV) and thermophotovoltaics (TPV). In solar photovoltaic systems, the photon source is the sun, whereas in thermophotovoltaic systems the photons are from artificially designed thermal emitters that operate at a lower temperature. The differences in the photon sources lead to different research emphases on the two photovoltaic systems in this work. This thesis investigates ways to control photon emission and absorption for solar energy and TPV applications. Several topics are discussed, including photon transport in multilayer structures, measurement of near-field thermal radiation, optical absorption in silicon nanowire structures, surface-plasmon enhanced near-bandgap optical absorption in silicon, and selective absorber surface for solar thermal applications. For thermophotovoltaic systems, the work is focused on thermal emission and photon transport. The study of photon transport in multilayer structures is presented. Results based on wave-optics and ray tracing methods are compared. The analysis shows that for structures contain a large number of layers, the coherence length of the emitting source is no longer a valid criterion to indicate whether ray tracing method is valid. Instead, wave inference effects always play a role. The effects of photon localization are also discussed. Surface-mode enhanced near-field thermal radiation is explored in this work as an effective way to tailor the thermal emission for TPV systems. Calculations based on fluctuation-dissipation theorem and Maxwell's equations are presented to study radiative heat transfer between two closely-spaced glass plates. The theoretical analysis shows that the radiative heat transfer between closely-spaced glass plates is enhanced by surface phonon polaritions and the flux can exceed the far-field upper-limit imposed by Planck's law of blackbody radiation. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (cont.) An experimental system was built to test near-field radiative heat transfer between two parallel glass plates, and the experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. For solar photovoltaics, the emphasis in this work is on improving optical absorption in silicon-based cells. Two nanostructures, silicon nanowire arrays and silicon embedded with small silver particles, have been analyzed as potential candidates for solar energy harvesting. The study on silicon nanowire structures reveals that nanowires have desirable antireflection characteristics. Several parameters, such as the length and diameter of the nanowires as well as the spacing between the wires, have been studied to provide the basis for the optimization of nanowire based solar cells. The study shows that nanowire structures have low reflectance over a broad spectrum and can absorb shortwavelength photons efficiently. However, the analysis also indicates that silicon nanowire is not efficient in absorbing long-wavelength photons. Longer wires in comparison to the thickness of dense films are generally required to compensate low absorption of the near-bandgap photons. The analysis of surface-plasmon assisted photon absorption is presented to address the problem of inadequate absorption of near-bandgap photons in silicon. Instead of increasing the optical path of photons for more absorption, surface plasmons are explored to enhance the local electromagnetic field and thus the optical absorption. An extended Mie scattering formulation is used to calculate the optical absorption around spherical silver particles embedded in silicon. It is found that local field enhancement by surface plasmon can lead to 50 times more absorption near the bandgap of silicon. An analytical model is developed to study the concentration effects of the surface plasmon field. It is shown that the net absorption gain reaches maximum when the spherical shell surrounding the particle has an outer diameter of 1.26 times of the particle diameter. The absorption loss in the metallic sphere, however, is a main obstacle to overcome. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (cont.) Finally, a different approach of solar energy utilization is discussed in this work. Selective absorber surfaces are studied for solar thermal energy harvesting. The surfaces consist of subwavelength periodic metallic structures. Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) analysis is conducted on the metallic structures. The effects of lattice spacing and structure thickness are presented. The numerical simulation indicates that the metallic structures have good spectral selectivity: high absorptance in visible range and low emittance in infrared. Fabrication of the selective absorber surface is attempted. Preliminary experimental results are given in this work. As a proof of concept, nickel is plated in porous anodic aluminum. The resultant structure shows good spectral selectivity which is not found in bulk nickel or aluminum.

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